To conduct substrate testing, non-destructive testing is preferred to minimize disruption to the surrounding areas. Verifying the construction details of the substrate is crucial in understanding the condition and possible causes of failure. Specialized equipment is utilized for such test, this includes Ground Penetrating Radar.
Ground Penetrating Radar uses the different dielectric constant of materials (e.g. concrete, steel reinforcement bars, brick masonry) to detect types of materials present and the depth of each layer. Defects such as moisture, cracks or excessive salt content can be detected from the radargram.