Defects from metal can arise from contaminants from the surroundings or exposure to weather, leading to defects such as corrosion, staining and discoloration. Contaminants found in the surrounding air such as acid (in rain) can also affect the aesthetics of metal surface, leading to unsightly appearance.

Beside troubleshooting failure of metal, we also analyse historic metal elements and restoration techniques for iron, bronze, brass and copper.

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