Stone and Ceramic

Stone and ceramic are used for façade, walls and many other architectural features. The types of stones are as varied and where necessary, stone should be properly treated before use. Architectural stone finishes may have stains, cracks and dis-colouration. Debonding from substrate is another common defect. During diagnosis of stones, samples are normally extracted for laboratory testing including microscopic inspection. Sometimes simulations are carried out.

Stains on surfaces can be aesthetically unpleasant and are challenging to treat without affecting the overall condition of the component. To minimize any further damages, poulticing can be conducted. Poulticing is the process of applying cleaning materials onto the stone surface to extract deeply-rooted contaminants and salt. Contaminants are extracted from the pores by capillary action with water to the surface. Common materials used for poulticing includes clay, nano-lime and sodium hydroxide.

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